Noroviruses are the most common cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, with no known animal reservoirs of human-infective noroviruses. As such, all norovirus infections are attributable to either direct human-to-human transmission, or indirect exposures via human contaminated food, water and fomites. Social and occupational contact, population density, travel, immune status, hygienic practices, contact with young children, climate and norovirus genotype all contribute to norovirus transmission in the community and clinical settings. Here we discuss risk factors, typical and atypical transmission routes and the infection control measures necessary to minimize norovirus transmission in the community and clinical settings.
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