Just as paleo-records have illuminated the dynamics of forest fire regimes and their relationship to climate, we look to the past through interdisciplinary socio-ecological research to understand the climate vulnerabilities of human and ecological communities at the WUI. Many of these landscapes were home to agricultural populations for centuries before Euroamerican colonization, seemingly without creating climate vulnerabilities that we are currently experiencing. In the southwestern Jemez Mountains in particular, more than 8,000 Ancestral Jemez villagers lived at population densities equivalent to the modern WUI for at least three centuries, through several severe droughts. We have brought together the insights of archaeology, dendrochronology, paleoecology, traditional ecological knowledge, and dynamic computer simulations to investigate the complex, long-term couplings of forest ecosystems, fire regimes, climate change, and human communities in the Ancestral Jemez landscape. This interdisciplinary research focuses on evaluating whether or not particular fire-forest-society relationships can enhance or erode the resilience of these fire-adapted forests. Our ongoing research addresses this question at multiple scales from the daily lived environment of the human communities, across their agricultural landscape, and beyond to encompass a mosaic of humanized, coupled human-natural, and natural landscape patches.