However, in spite of the large public investment, early technical successes and promising results in field trials, only two GM crops developed in public institutions have been released to date, a virus resistant papaya cultivated in Hawaii (D. Gonsalves. 2004. AgBioForum 7:36-40) and a now defunct bioremediation flax (A. McHughen et al. 1997. Can J Pl Sci 77:641-643). Both of these were developed in the late 1980s and released in the mid 1990s. Certainly, and as in any breeding program, some of the candidate GM cultivars will have failed in trials or for adverse business reasons, but these are still very sparse returns considering the substantial public investment over a quarter century. Where are the other "Orphan" GM Specialty and Small Market Crops?
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